OBJECTIVE: We aimed to use the meta-analysis method to assess the relationship between coffee drinking and all-cause mortality.
DESIGN: Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models.
SETTING: We systematically searched and identified eligible literature in the PubMed and Scopus databases.
SUBJECTS: Seventeen studies including 1 054 571 participants and 131 212 death events from all causes were included in the present study.
RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included and evaluated in the meta-analysis. A U-shaped dose-response relationship was found between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity <0·001). Compared with non/occasional coffee drinkers, the relative risks for all-cause mortality were 0·89 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·93) for 1-<3 cups/d, 0·87 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·91) for 3-<5 cups/d and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·94) for ≥5 cups/d, and the relationship was more marked in females than in males.
CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies indicated that light to moderate coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes, particularly in women.