K Yamagata et al, 2018. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence, Antioxidants (Basel) Volume 7 (2).

ABSTRACT:

Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.

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S C Larsen et al, 2017. Habitual coffee consumption and changes in measures of adiposity: a comprehensive study of longitudinal associations, International Journal of Obesity, published online.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
A relationship between change in coffee consumption and reduced long-term weight gain has been suggested, but current evidence is inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE:
To examine longitudinal associations between coffee consumption and changes in body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), body fat percentage (BF %) and waist circumference (WC).

DESIGN:
The study consisted of 2128 participants from the Danish part of the MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) cohort with repeated information on coffee consumption, adiposity measures and covariates during an 11-year period. Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent change in adiposity measures. The same analyses were conducted analyzing associations between change in coffee consumption and concurrent as well as subsequent changes in adiposity measures.

RESULTS:
We found no consistent evidence of associations between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent 6-year changes in adiposity measures. A statistically significant association between increased coffee consumption over a 6-year period and decreased concurrent gain in BMI, FMI, BF % and WC (-0.05 kg m-2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.07, -0.02), -0.04 kg m-2 (95% CI: -0.06, -0.02), -0.08% (95% CI: -0.13, -0.04) and -0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.12), respectively, per 1 cup day-1 increase in coffee consumption) was found. No association was seen between change in coffee consumption and concurrent change in FFMI. Moreover, an initial change in coffee consumption during the first 5-year period was not associated with change in adiposity during the subsequent 6-year period.

CONCLUSIONS:
Increased coffee consumption was associated with a decreased concurrent gain in body weight, fat mass and waist circumference, but the associations were weak. Moreover, a causal relationship could not be established, as we found no evidence of associations between an initial change in coffee consumption and subsequent change in adiposity.

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L i Soylu et al, 2018. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and risk of primary infertility in women: a Danish cohort study, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scan published online.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:
The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine affects the risk of primary infertility in women.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:
We selected nulliparous Danish women aged 20-29 years from a prospective cohort and retrieved information on coffee and tea consumption from a questionnaire and an interview at enrollment. We assessed the women’s fertility by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort and retrieved information on children and vital status from the Civil Registration System. All 7574 women included for analysis were followed for primary infertility from the date of enrollment (1991-1993) until 31 December 2010. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS:
During follow-up, primary infertility was diagnosed in 822 women. Compared to never consumers, the risk of primary infertility among women who drank coffee or tea was not affected. The risk of primary infertility was neither associated with an increasing number of daily servings of coffee (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.03) or tea (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03) in consumers only. Concerning total caffeine consumption (from coffee and tea), the risk of infertility was similar among consumers compared to never consumers. Finally, each additional daily 100 mg of caffeine did not affect the risk among consumers only (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02).

CONCLUSIONS:
In this population-based cohort study, not restricted to women seeking pregnancy, we found no association between coffee, tea or total caffeine consumption and the risk of primary infertility in women.

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