H Shen et al, 2016. Association between caffeine consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, Volume 9 (1).

ABSTRACT:

Objectives: Caffeine consumption is reported to be associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between caffeine consumption and prevalence or hepatic fibrosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in observational studies.

Methods: We searched the literature of all languages from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library from 1 January 1980 through 10 January 2015. Total caffeine consumption was defined as the daily intake of caffeine (mg/day) from all caffeine-containing products. Combined and subgroup analyses stratified by study designs, study locations, and type of caffeine intake were performed.

Results: Four cross-sectional and two case control studies with a total of 20,064 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Among these, three studies with 18,990 subjects were included in the analysis for prevalence of NAFLD while the other three studies with 1074 subjects were for hepatic fibrosis. Total caffeine consumption (mg/day) was not significantly associated with either the prevalence [pooled mean difference (MD) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) −35.92 to 40.64] or hepatic fibrosis (higher versus lower stages; pooled MD −39.95; 95% CI −132.72 to 52.82) of NAFLD. Subgroup analyses stratified by study designs and locations were also not significant. However, after stratifying by type of caffeine intake, regular coffee caffeine intake (mg/day) was significantly associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis of NAFLD (pooled MD −91.35; 95% CI −139.42 to −43.27; n = 2 studies).

Conclusion: Although total caffeine intake is not associated with the prevalence or hepatic fibrosis of NAFLD, regular coffee caffeine consumption may significantly reduce hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

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M Niewada & P Michel, 2016, Lifestyle modification for stroke prevention: facts and fiction. Current Opinions in Neurology, Volume 29.

 

ABSTRACT:

Purpose of review: The purpose is to summarize recent evidence on lifestyle modifications and first or recurrent stroke risk. Recent findings:  Weight reduction, low-risk diet, regular physical activity, smoking cessation, and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stroke risk up to 50% or more, but level one evidence is still lacking for several interventions. Appropriate food ingredients can significantly decrease stroke risk as recently confirmed for Mediterranean diet. The optimal intensity and amount of physical exercise is still not well established before and after stroke, although modest levels of activity already show benefits. Passive smoking represents an important health hazard. The impact of tobacco withdrawal using e-cigarette is currently uncertain. Alcohol and stroke risk relation is probably J-shaped for ischaemic stroke and linear for intracranial haemorrhage. Coffee consumption is J-shaped for overall stroke. Several interventions have failed to show significant effects, including regular intake of ‘healthy’ forms of fatty acids, various vitamin supplements, and other antioxidants. Both individualized and public educational programmes are likely needed on a repetitive basis to induce and maintain a healthy lifestyle before or after a stroke.

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E Mostofsky et al, 2015. Risk of Atrial Fibrilation Associated with Coffee Intake: Findings from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, published online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: There have been discrepant findings on whether coffee consumption is associated with the rate of developing atrial fibrillation (AF).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data on 57,053 participants (27,178 men and 29,875 women) aged 50-64 years in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. All participants provided information on coffee intake via food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Incident AF was identified using nationwide registries. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 3415 AF events occurred. Compared with no intake, coffee consumption was inversely associated with AF incidence, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.15) for more than none to <1 cup/day, 0.88 (95% CI 0.71-1.10) for 1 cup/day, 0.86 (95% CI 0.71-1.04) for 2-3 cups/day, 0.84 (95% CI 0.69-1.02) for 4-5 cups/day, 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.98) for 6-7 cups/day and 0.79 (95% CI 0.63-1.00) for >7 cups/day (p-linear trend = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based cohort study, higher levels of coffee consumption were associated with a lower rate of incident AF.

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J Wang et al, 2015. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma: A Meta-Analysis. European Journal of Nutrition, published online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT:

PURPOSE: Results from epidemiologic studies on coffee consumption and the risk of cutaneous melanoma are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the associations between the consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee and the risk of cutaneous melanoma, respectively.

METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE for relevant articles published up to August 2015. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline.

RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 832,956 participants for total coffee consumption, 5 studies involving 717,151 participants for caffeinated coffee consumption and 6 studies involving 718,231 participants for decaffeinated coffee consumption were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with the lowest level of consumption, the pooled RRs were 0.80 (95 % CI 0.69-0.93, I 2 = 53.5 %), 0.85 (95 % CI 0.71-1.01, I 2 = 65.0 %) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.81-1.05, I 2 = 0.0 %) for the consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee, respectively. In subgroup analysis by study design, the pooled RRs in cohort studies and case-control studies were 0.83 (95 % CI 0.72-0.97) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.51-1.07) for total coffee consumption, respectively. Dose-response analysis suggested cutaneous melanoma risk decreased by 3 % [0.97 (0.93-1.00)] and 4 % [0.96 (0.92-1.01)] for 1 cup/day increment of total coffee and caffeinated coffee consumption, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of cutaneous melanoma.

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