G Grosso et al, 2017. Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis, Nutrients, Volume 17, published online.

ABSTRACT:

Objective:
To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension.

Methods:
An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses.

Results:
Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

Conclusions:
Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.

 

The post G Grosso et al, 2017. Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis, Nutrients, Volume 17, published online. appeared first on Coffee and Health.

H M Noh et al, 2017. Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease risk using the Framingham risk score. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 26 (5).

ABSTRACT:

Background and Objectives:
Although concerns regarding the influence of coffee consumption on human health have accompanied the massive increase in coffee consumption, the effects of coffee intake on the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial. Therefore, we evaluated the association between coffee consumption and CHD risk as estimated using the Framingham risk model in Korean adults.

Methods and Study Design:
This cross-sectional study involved 3,987 participants aged 30-74 years who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010. The frequency of coffee consumption was self-reported and classified into 4 categories (non-drinker, 1, 2, and ≥3 cups/day). The 10-year risk for CHD was determined from the Framingham risk score.

Results:
Across the levels of coffee consumption, there were significant differences in the frequency of smoking among men and advanced age, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, diabetes, and smoking among women. In the multiple logistic regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for ≥20% 10-year CHD risk was 0.211 (0.060-0.745) for women who consumed ≥3 cups of coffee per day compared with women who consumed <1 cup per day. For women, a significant dose-response inverse association between the level of coffee consumption and 10-year CHD risk persisted even after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. For the men, however, there was no significant association between coffee consumption and 10-year CHD risk.

Conclusion:
Coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of CHD in Korean women.

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E Loftfield et al, 2017. A Prospective Investigation of Coffee Drinking and Bladder Cancer Incidence in the United States, Epidemiology, Volume 28.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:
In 1991, coffee was classified as a group 2B carcinogen, possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on limited epidemiologic evidence of a positive association with bladder cancer. In 2016, the International Agency for Research on Cancer downgraded this classification due to lack of evidence from prospective studies particularly for never smokers.

METHODS:
Baseline coffee drinking was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire in the NIH-AARP prospective cohort study. Among 469,047 US adults, who were cancer free at baseline, 6,012 bladder cancer cases (5,088 men and 924 women) were identified during >6.3 million person-years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with non-coffee drinkers as the reference group.

RESULTS:
Coffee drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer in models adjusted for age and sex (HR for ≥4 cups/d relative to coffee nondrinkers = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.70, 2.14; P trend < 0.0001). However, the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for cigarette smoking and other potential confounders (HR for ≥4 cups/d relative to coffee nondrinkers = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.33; P trend = 0.0007). Associations were further attenuated after additional adjustment for lifetime smoking patterns among the majority of the cohort with this available data (P trend = 0.16). There was no evidence of an association among never smokers (P trend = 0.84).

CONCLUSIONS:
Positive associations between coffee drinking and bladder cancer among ever smokers but not never smokers suggest that residual confounding from imperfect measurement of smoking or unmeasured risk factors may be an explanation for our positive findings.

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