I Y Kim et al, 2017. Differences in Parkinson’s Disease Risk with Caffeine Intake and Postmenopausal Hormone Use, Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, published online.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been associated with a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This association is robust in men, but inconsistent in women due to a possible interaction with post-menopausal hormone (PMH) use.

OBJECTIVE: To (1) evaluate the association between caffeine intake and PD risk and (2) assess potential effect modification of the association by PMH use among women.

METHODS: We examined associations between caffeine intake and incident PD risk in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 121,701 women) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) (N = 51,529 men). Dietary data on coffee and caffeine from other sources were collected every four years using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for both cohorts. Information on lifestyle and incident PD diagnosis was updated biennially and PD diagnoses were confirmed by medical record review. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: We documented a total of 1,219 PD cases over the follow-up period. The multivariable-adjusted HR comparing the highest to lowest quintile of caffeine intake was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.68; Ptrend<0.0001) in the HPFS. Among women, there was a suggestion of an interaction between coffee intake and PMH use (P = 0.08). In the pooled analyses combining men and women who have never used PMH, the risk of PD was lower as coffee intake increased (Ptrend<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings that increased caffeine intake may be associated with a decreased PD risk in men and women who have never used PMH.

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R Machtinger et al, 2017. Association between preconception maternal beverage intake and in vitro fertilization outcomes, Fertility and Sterility, published online.

ABSTRACT:

OBJECTIVE:
To study whether maternal intake of beverage type affects IVF outcomes.

DESIGN: A prospective study.

SETTING: Tertiary, university-affiliated center.

PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women undergoing IVF from 2014 through 2016 for infertility as well as for pregenetic diagnosis for autosomal recessive diseases were enrolled during ovarian stimulation and completed a questionnaire describing their usual beverage consumption. INTERVENTION(S): None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): IVF outcomes were abstracted from medical records. Total caffeine intake was estimated by summing the caffeine content for specific beverages multiplied by frequency of intake. Associations between specific types of beverages and IVF outcomes were analyzed using Poisson and logistic regression models adjusting for possible confounders.

RESULT(S): Higher intake of sugared soda was associated with lower total, mature, and fertilized oocytes and top-quality embryos after ovarian stimulation. Women who consumed sugared soda had, on average, 1.1 fewer oocytes retrieved, 1.2 fewer mature oocytes retrieved, 0.6 fewer fertilized oocytes, and 0.6 fewer top-quality embryos compared with women who did not consume sugared soda. Furthermore, compared with women who did not drink sugared soda, the adjusted difference in percent of cycles resulting in live birth for women consuming 0.1-1 cups/day and >1 cup/day were -12% and -16%, respectively. No associations were found between consumption of coffee, caffeine, or diet sodas and IVF outcome.

CONCLUSION(S): Sugared beverages, independent of their caffeine content, may be a bigger threat to reproductive success than caffeine and caffeinated beverages without added sugar.

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C L R S Paiva et al, 2017. Consumption of coffee or caffeine and serum concentration of inflammatory markers: a systematic review, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, published online.

ABSTRACT:

Coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of conditions that share low-grade inflammation as their physiopathological basis. We therefore summarized the effects of coffee or coffee components on serum levels of inflammatory markers. Clinical trials assessing the effect of coffee, caffeine or other coffee components on inflammatory markers were searched without restriction to publication date. Fifteen studies (8 involving coffee and 7 caffeine) were included. Increased adiponectin levels were found in four of seven trials comparing filtered coffee/caffeinated coffee with placebo or comparing its levels at baseline and after consumption of medium or dark roasted coffee, but no change was seen in caffeine trials. None of the five studies assessing the effects of coffee found changes in C-reactive protein (CPR), but one out of three trials found decreased CPR levels in response to caffeine. Interleukin (IL)-6 was increased by caffeinated coffee compared with placebo in one of four coffee trials, and by caffeine in three out of five studies. Caffeine increased IL-10 levels in two of three trials. These data suggest a predominant anti-inflammatory action of coffee but not of caffeine consumption. Moreover, the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses to caffeine point to its complex effects on the inflammatory response.

 

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T G Simon et al, 2017. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis, Metabolism, published online.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated CVD risk is unknown.

METHODS: We examined 3710 ethnically-diverse participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, without history of known liver disease, and with available coffee data from a validated 120-item food frequency questionnaire. All participants underwent baseline non-contrast cardiac CT from which NAFLD was defined by liver:spleen ratio (L:S<1.0), and subclinical CVD was defined by coronary artery calcium (CAC)>0. Major CVD events were defined by the first occurrence of myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, angina, stroke, or CVD death. We used log-binomial regression to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for CAC>0 by coffee intake and NAFLD status, and events were compared between groups using frequency of events within adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models.

RESULTS: Seventeen percent (N=637) of participants met criteria for NAFLD. NAFLD participants were more likely to have elevated BMI (mean 31.1±5.5kg/m2 vs. 28.0±5.2kg/m2, p<0.0001), and diabetes (22% vs. 11%, p<0.0001), but did not differ in daily coffee consumption (p=0.97). Among NAFLD participants, coffee consumption was not associated with prevalent, baseline CAC>0 (PR=1.02 [0.98-1.07]). Over 12.8years of follow-up, 93 NAFLD and 415 non-NAFLD participants experienced a CV event. However, coffee intake was not associated with incident CVD events, in either NAFLD (HR=1.05 [0.91-1.21]) or non-NAFLD participants (HR=1.03 [0.97-1.11]).

CONCLUSION: In a large, population-based cohort, coffee consumption was not associated with the prevalence of subclinical CVD, nor did coffee impact the future risk of major CVD events, regardless of underlying NAFLD status.

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M P Carrieri et al, 2017. Protective effect of coffee consumption on all-cause mortality of French HIV-HCV co-infected patients, Journal of Hepatology, published online.

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims

Coffee has anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective properties. In the general population, drinking ≥3 cups of coffee/day has been associated with a 14% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Methods

ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH is an ongoing French nationwide prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV-HCV collecting both medical and psychosocial/behavioural data (annual self-administered questionnaires). We used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of elevated coffee consumption (≥3 cups/day) at baseline on all-cause mortality during the cohort’s five-year follow-up.

Results

Over a median [interquartile range] follow-up of 5.0 [3.9–5.9] years, 77 deaths occurred among 1,028 eligible patients (mortality rate 1.64/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–2.05). Leading causes of death were HCV-related diseases (n = 33, 43%), cancers unrelated to AIDS/HCV (n = 9, 12%), and AIDS (n = 8, 10%). At the first available visit, 26.6% of patients reported elevated coffee consumption. Elevated coffee consumption at baseline was associated with a 50% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.5; CI 0.3–0.9; p = 0.032), after adjustment for gender and psychosocial, behavioral and clinical time-varying factors.

Conclusions

Drinking three or more cups of coffee per day halves all-cause mortality risk in patients co-infected with HIV-HCV. The benefits of coffee extracts and supplementing dietary intake with other anti-inflammatory compounds need to be evaluated in this population.

Lay summary

Coffee has anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective properties but its effect on mortality risk has never been investigated in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study shows that elevated coffee consumption (≥3 cups/day) halves all-cause mortality risk in patients co-infected with HIV-HCV. The benefits of coffee extracts and supplementing dietary intake with other anti-inflammatory compounds need to be evaluated in this population.

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