M Lukic et al, 2018. Coffee Drinking and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies, Nutrition and Cancer, published online.

ABSTRACT

Background:
Several compounds contained in coffee have been found to suppress carcinogenesis in experimental studies. We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis to assess the impact of coffee consumption on the risk of endometrial cancer.

Materials and methods:
We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to August 2016. Using random effects models, we estimated summary relative risks (RR) for cohort studies and odds ratios (OR) for case-control studies with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Dose–response analyses were conducted by using generalized least square trend estimation.

Results:
We identified 12 cohort studies and 8 case control studies eligible for inclusion, contributing with 11,663 and 2,746 endometrial cancer cases, respectively. The summary RR for highest compared with lowest coffee intake was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.68–0.81; pheterogeneity D 0.09, I 2 D 32%). The corresponding summary RR among cohort studies was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.71–0.85; pheterogeneity D 0.14, I 2 D 31.9%) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.53–0.76; pheterogeneity D 0.57, I 2 D 0%) for case-control studies. One-cup increment per day was associated with 3% risk reduction (95% CI: 2–4%) in cohort studies and 12% (95% CI: 5–18%) in case-control studies. After pooling the results from 5 cohort studies, the association remained significant only in women with body mass index over 30 (RR D 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61–0.81).

Conclusion:
The results from our meta analysis strengthen the evidence of a protective effect of coffee consumption on the risk of EC and further suggest that increased coffee intake might be particularly beneficial for women with obesity.

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M Otake et al, 2018. Association Between Serum Folate Levels and Caffeinated Beverage Consumption in Pregnant Women in Chiba: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study, Journal of Epidemiology, published online.

ABSTRACT

Background:
Several studies have reported the adverse effects of caffeine intake during pregnancy on fetal health. However, the effects of caffeine intake from green and oolong teas has not been investigated, despite the considerable consumption of these teas in Japan and the potential inhibitory effects of catechins—chemicals present at relatively high levels in green and oolong teas—on folic acid absorption. The potential associations of serum folate levels with caffeinated beverage consumption and catechin levels remain largely unstudied. The present study aimed to determine these associations in pregnant Japanese women.

Methods:
Pregnant women (n = 2,701) not receiving folate supplementation were enrolled at the Chiba Unit Center, a regional site of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS). Serum folate levels were measured using an Access folate assay kit, and nutrient and caffeine intakes were assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire that was previously evaluated in Japanese populations.

Results:
The low and normal serum folate groups reported caffeine intakes of 42.3 mg=1,000 kcal and 34.4 mg=1,000 kcal, respectively, and tannin intakes of 40.8 mg=1,000 kcal and 36.3 mg=1,000 kcal, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed negative associations of serum folate levels with caffeine and tannin intakes and a positive association between serum folate levels and dietary folate intake.

Conclusions:
Considering the negative associations of caffeine and tannin levels with serum folate levels, pregnant women should consume caffeinated beverages, such as coffee and green=oolong teas, with caution.

The post M Otake et al, 2018. Association Between Serum Folate Levels and Caffeinated Beverage Consumption in Pregnant Women in Chiba: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study, Journal of Epidemiology, published online. appeared first on Coffee and Health.

B A Peters et al, 2018. Association of coffee and tea intake with the oral microbiome: results from a large cross-sectional study, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, published online.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
The oral microbiota play a central role in oral health, and possibly in carcinogenesis. Research suggests coffee and tea consumption may have beneficial health effects. We examined the associations of these common beverages with the oral ecosystem in a large cross-sectional study.

METHODS:
We assessed oral microbiota in mouthwash samples from 938 participants in two U.S. cohorts using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Coffee and tea intake were assessed from food frequency questionnaires. We examined associations of coffee and tea intake with overall oral microbiota diversity and composition using linear regression and permutational MANOVA, respectively, and with taxon abundance using negative binomial generalized linear models; all models adjusted for age, sex, cohort, BMI, smoking, ethanol intake, and energy intake.

RESULTS:
Higher tea intake was associated with greater oral microbiota richness (P=0.05) and diversity (P=0.006), and shifts in overall community composition (P=0.002); coffee was not associated with these microbiome parameters. Tea intake was associated with altered abundance of several oral taxa; these included Fusobacteriales, Clostridiales, and Shuttleworthia satelles (higher with increasing tea) and Bifidobacteriaceae, Bergeyella, Lactobacillales, and Kingella oralis (lower with increasing tea). Higher coffee intake was only associated with greater abundance of Granulicatella and Synergistetes.

CONCLUSIONS:
In the largest study to date of tea and coffee consumption in relation to the oral microbiota, the microbiota of tea drinkers differed in several ways from non-drinkers.

IMPACT:
Tea-driven changes to the oral microbiome may contribute to previously observed associations between tea and oral and systemic diseases, including cancers.

The post B A Peters et al, 2018. Association of coffee and tea intake with the oral microbiome: results from a large cross-sectional study, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, published online. appeared first on Coffee and Health.

N Kollia et al, 2018. Determinants of healthy ageing and its relation to 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence: The Attica Study, Central European Journal of Public Health, Volume 26(1)

SUMMARY

Objectives:
The aim of the study was to understand determinants of ageing in relation to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events at population
level, and to explore determinants of healthy ageing and its relation to 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy individuals.

Methods:
In the context of the ATTICA study 453 apparently healthy men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years) with complete
psychological evaluation were studied and followed during 2002–2012. Healthy Ageing Index (HAI) (range 0–7) was calculated based on socioeconomical,
bio-clinical, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics (i.e. dietary habits and physical activity) of the participants during the baseline
examination. CVD incidence during the follow-up period was defined according to ICD-10 criteria.

Results:
Healthy Ageing Index was inversely associated with higher 10-year CVD risk (OR per 1/7 (95% CI): 0.47 (0.28, 0.80). Age and sexadjusted
determinants of healthy ageing were abnormal waist to hip ratio (p < 0.001), increased coffee consumption (p = 0.04), reduced basic
metabolic rhythm (p < 0.001), increased triglycerides (p = 0.003), and C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.02), as aggravating factors, while moderate
alcohol consumption (p = 0.002) was identified as a positive influential parameter.

Conclusions:
Understanding healthy ageing, as a dominant factor of CVD development, provides a new direction for better prevention efforts
focused on healthy ageing at both population and individual level.

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