F Rodriguez Artalejo and E Lopez Garcia, 2017. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease: A condensed review of epidemiological evidence and mechanisms, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, published online.

ABSTRACT

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, and some studies have suggested it may be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of poor health in the world. This manuscript reviews the evidence on the effect of habitual coffee consumption on CVD incidence and mortality. The review is based mostly on observational studies and meta analyses of the literature. In healthy people, compared to not consuming coffee, habitual consumption of 3-5 cups of coffee per day is associated with a 15% reduction in the risk of CVD, and higher consumption has not been linked to elevated CVD risk. Moreover, in comparison with no coffee intake, usual consumption of 1-5 cups/day is associated with a lower risk of death. In people who have already suffered a CVD event, habitual consumption does not increase the risk of a recurrent CVD or death. However, hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure should avoid consuming large doses of caffeine. In persons with well-controlled blood pressure, coffee consumption is probably safe, but this hypothesis should be confirmed by further investigations.

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J Lyngso et al, 2017. Association between coffee or caffeine consumption and fecundity and fertility: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Clinical Epidemiology, Volume 9.

ABSTRACT


Objective:
 The aim was to investigate whether coffee or caffeine consumption is associated with reproductive endpoints among women with natural fertility (ie, time to pregnancy [TTP] and spontaneous abortion [SAB]) and among women in fertility treatment (ie, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate).

Design: This study was a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis including data from case–control and cohort studies.

Methods: An extensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase, with no time and language restrictions. Also, reference lists were searched manually. Two independent reviewers assessed the manuscript quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). A two-stage dose–response meta-analysis was applied to assess a potential association between coffee/caffeine consumption and the outcomes: TTP, SAB, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Cochrane Q-test and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using Egger’s regression test.

Results: The pooled results showed that coffee/caffeine consumption is associated with a significantly increased risk of SAB for 300 mg caffeine/day (relative risk [RR]: 1.37, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.19; 1.57) and for 600 mg caffeine/day (RR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.62; 3.31). No association was found between coffee/caffeine consumption and outcomes of fertility treatment (based on two studies). No clear association was found between exposure to coffee/caffeine and natural fertility as measured by fecundability odds ratio (based on three studies) or waiting TTP (based on two studies).

Conclusion: Results from this meta-analysis support the growing evidence of an association between coffee/caffeine intake and the risk of SAB. However, viewing the reproductive capacity in a broader perspective, there seems to be little, if any, association between coffee/caffeine consumption and fecundity. In general, results from this study are supportive of a precautionary principle advised by health organizations such as European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and World Health Organization (WHO), although the advised limit of a maximum of two to three cups of coffee/200–300 mg caffeine per day may be too high.

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S Greulich et al, 2017. Effects of caffeine on the detection of ischemia in patients undergoing adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, Journal of Cardiovascular Magentic Resonance, Volume 19 (1).

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can detect significant coronary artery stenoses with high diagnostic accuracy. Caffeine is a nonselective competitive inhibitor of adenosine2A-receptors, which might hamper the vasodilator effect of adenosine stress, potentially yielding false-negative results. Much controversy exists about the influence of caffeine on adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging. Our study sought to investigate the effects of caffeine on ischemia detection in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing adenosine stress CMR.

METHODS:
Thirty patients with evidence of myocardial ischemia on caffeine-naïve adenosine stress CMR were prospectively enrolled and underwent repeat adenosine stress CMR after intake of 200 mg caffeine. Both CMR exams were then compared for evaluation of ischemic burden.

RESULTS:
Despite intake of caffeine, no conversion of a positive to a negative stress study occurred on a per patient basis. Although we found significant lower ischemic burden in CMR exams with caffeine compared to caffeine-naïve CMR exams, absolute differences varied only slightly (1 segment based on a 16-segment model, 3 segments on a 60-segment model, and 1 ml in total ischemic myocardial volume, p < 0.001 each). Moreover, no relevant ischemia (≥2 segments in a 16-segment model) was missed by prior ingestion of caffeine.

CONCLUSIONS:
Although differences were small and no relevant myocardial ischemia had been missed, prior consumption of caffeine led to significant reduction of ischemic burden, and might lower the high diagnostic and prognostic value of adenosine stress CMR. Therefore, we suggest that patients should still refrain from caffeine prior adenosine stress CMR tests.

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C M Wu et al, 2017. Frequency of a diagnosis of glaucoma in individuals who consume coffee, tea and/or soft drinks, British Journal of Opthalmology, published online.

Abstract

Aims To evaluate the association between consumption of coffee, tea or soft drinks, and glaucoma in the participants of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Methods The exposures of interest of this retrospective cross-sectional study were caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, iced tea, hot tea and soft drinks. The outcome of interest was a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma based on the Rotterdam criteria. Analysis of the correlation between the frequency of consumption of each type of beverage and glaucoma was performed using logistic regression modelling while controlling for age, body mass index, gender, ethnicity, smoking status and diabetes. Data were weighted using the multistage NHANES sampling design.

Results Among a total of 1678 survey participants, the overall prevalence of glaucoma was 5.1% (n=84). Most participants were non-Hispanic white (n=892; 53.2%). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, iced tea and soft drinks, and glaucoma. Participants who consumed at least one cup of hot tea daily had a 74% decreased odds of having glaucoma compared with those who did not consume hot tea (adjusted OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72, P=0.004 for trend); however, no statistically significant association existed for decaffeinated hot tea and glaucoma.

Conclusion In NHANES, participants who consumed hot tea daily were less likely to have glaucoma than those who did not consume hot tea. No significant associations were found between the consumption of coffee, iced tea, decaffeinated tea and soft drinks, and glaucoma risk. This study is limited by its cross-sectional design and use of multiple statistical testing, and larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the proposed association between tea consumption and decreased glaucoma risk.

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