L Kirsty Pourshahidi et al, 2016. A Comprehensive Overview of the Risks and Benefits of Coffee Consumption, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Volume 15.

ABSTRACT
Findings on both the health benefits and the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption have been contradictory. However, the general scientific consensus is that moderate, regular coffee drinking by healthy individuals is either essentially benign or mildly beneficial. Results and generalizations are complicated by a number of factors, including differences in age, gender, health status, type of coffee preparation, serving size, and source of coffee. Coffee may have potential health benefits and risks, but causality cannot be established for either with the research currently available as these are largely based on observational data. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the risks and benefits of coffee consumption on health outcomes. A systematic search (search terms: “coffee” OR “coffee adj3” [consum* or intake* or drink*]) of the literature (from 1970; humans; in English) using the electronic databases “OVID,” “CINAHL,” and “Web of Knowledge” returned 12405 results. Duplicates were removed, studies were screened (based on inclusion/exclusion criteria), and the remaining eligible studies (n = 1277) were used to collate an exhaustive list of the potential health benefits and risks of coffee consumption, which were grouped and are discussed with regard to major diseases/conditions (mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and metabolic/liver/neurological disorders), at risk/ vulnerable groups, and specific coffee constituents. This qualitative assessment has shown that the health benefits (or null effects) clearly outweigh the risks of moderate coffee consumption in adult consumers for the majority of health outcomes considered. Results from this research may aid further qualitative and quantitative deterministic risk–benefit assessments of coffee consumption.

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O L Brown et al, 2016. Coffee Reduces the Risk of Death after Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-Analysis, Coronary Artery Disease, published online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background:
Habitual coffee consumption is protective against coronary heart disease in women; however, it is not clear whether such cardioprotection is conferred on those who have already experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether coffee consumption affected mortality after AMI.
Materials and methods:
We carried out a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies that examined the relationship between coffee intake and mortality after an AMI. Using a defined-search strategy, electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched for papers published between 1946 and 2015. Two eligible studies investigating post-AMI mortality risk against coffee consumption were identified and assessed using set criteria. Combined, these studies recruited a total of 3271 patients and 604 died. The hazard ratios for the following experimental groups were defined: light coffee drinkers (1–2 cups/day) versus non-coffee drinkers, heavy coffee drinkers (>2 cups/day) versus non-coffee drinkers and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers.
Results:  A statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between coffee drinking and mortality; all three groups showed a significant reduction in risk ratio. Light coffee drinkers versus non-coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66–0.94, P = 0.008]; heavy coffee drinkers versus non-coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45–0.65, P < 0.00001); and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58–0.83, P < 0.0001).
Conclusion: Drinking coffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality.

 

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L Wu et al, 2016. Coffee Intake and the Incident Risk of Cognitive Disorders: A Dose-response Meta-Analysis of Nine Prospective Cohort Studies. Clinical Nutrition, published online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent conclusions on the impact of coffee consumption in the developing of cognitive disorders. However, no previous meta-analysis has pooled the evidence from the prospective cohort studies to assess the influence of coffee drinking and its potential dose-response patterns on the risk of developing cognitive disorders specifically.

METHODS: Two databases (PubMed and Embase) were searched for evidence of cohort studies from inception to February 2016. We used a generic inverse-variance method with a random-effects model to pool the fully adjusted relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the dose-response analyses, a generalized least-squares trend estimation model was applied to computing the study-specific slopes.

RESULTS: Nine prospective cohort studies involving 34,282 participants were included in our study. The duration of follow-up years ranged from 1.3 to 28. Compared with <1 cup, daily drinking of 1-2 cups of coffee was inversely linked with the occurrence of cognitive disorders (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, cognitive decline, and cognitive impairment), and the pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.82 (0.71, 0.94) with evidence of non-significant heterogeneity (I2 = 25%). Non-significant differences were presented for the association between coffee consumption (>3 vs. <1 cup/d) and incident cognitive disorders. The dose-response analysis showed a “J-shaped” curve relationship of the risk of developing cognitive disorders with coffee consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: A “J-shaped” association was presented between coffee intake and incident cognitive disorders, with the lowest risk of incident cognitive disorders at a daily consumption level of 1-2 cups of coffee.

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