A Hodge et al, 2017. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B. Nutrients, Volume 9 (1).

 

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females (p < 0.05). Patients with HBV had lower liver stiffness than those with HCV and NAFLD. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, M or XL probe, and disease state (NAFLD, HCV, and HBV status), those who drank 2 or more cups of coffee per day had a lower liver stiffness (p = 0.044). Tea consumption had no effect (p = 0.9). Coffee consumption decreases liver stiffness, which may indicate less fibrosis and inflammation, independent of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the notion of coffee maybe beneficial in patients with liver disease.

 

The post A Hodge et al, 2017. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B. Nutrients, Volume 9 (1). appeared first on Coffee and Health.

A T Nordestgaard & B G Nordestgaard, 2016. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: observational and Mendelian randomization analyses in 95,000 – 223,000 individuals. International Journal of Epidemiology, published online.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND:
Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.

METHODS:
First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models evaluated with restricted cubic splines to examine observational associations in 95 366 White Danes. Second, we estimated mean coffee intake according to five genetic variations near the AHR (rs4410790; rs6968865) and CYP1A1/2 genes (rs2470893; rs2472297; rs2472299). Third, we used sex- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including the Cardiogram and C4D consortia in a total of up to 223 414 individuals. We applied similar analyses to ApoE genotypes associated with plasma cholesterol levels, as a positive control.

RESULTS:
In observational analyses, we observed U-shaped associations between coffee intake and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality; lowest risks were observed in individuals with medium coffee intake. Caffeine intake allele score (rs4410790 + rs2470893) was associated with a 42% higher coffee intake. Hazard ratios per caffeine intake allele were 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.03) for ischaemic heart disease, 1.02 (0.99-1.02) for ischaemic stroke, 1.02 (1.00-1.03) for ischaemic vascular disease, 1.02 (0.99-1.06) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.01 (0.99-1.03) for all-cause mortality. Including international consortia, odds ratios per caffeine intake allele for ischaemic heart disease were 1.00 (0.98-1.02) for rs4410790, 1.01 (0.99-1.03) for rs6968865, 1.02 (1.00-1.04) for rs2470893, 1.02 (1.00-1.04) for rs2472297 and 1.03 (0.99-1.06) for rs2472299. Conversely, 5% lower cholesterol level caused by ApoE genotype had a corresponding odds ratio for ischaemic heart disease of 0.93 (0.89-0.97).

CONCLUSIONS:
Observationally, coffee intake was associated with U-shaped lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality; however, genetically caffeine intake was not associated with risk of cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality.

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X Shi et al, 2016. Acute caffeine ingestion reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Journal, published online.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
According to previous meta-analyses, coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Whether caffeine, the key ingredient in coffee, has a beneficial effect on the glycemic homeostasis and the anti-diabetic effect is particularly controversial. The aim of this study was to summarize the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

METHODS:
A comprehensive literature search for papers published before April 2016 was conducted in EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of caffeine on insulin sensitivity in healthy humans without diabetes were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3.

RESULTS:
The search yielded 7 RCTs in which caffeine intake was the single variant. Compared with placebo, caffeine intake significantly decreased the insulin sensitivity index, with a standardized mean difference of -2.06 (95% confidence interval -2.67 to -1.44, I2 = 49%, P for heterogeneity = 0.06).

CONCLUSION:
Acute caffeine ingestion reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Thus, in the short term, caffeine might shift glycemic homeostasis toward hyperglycemia. Long-term trials investigating the role of caffeine in the anti-diabetic effect of coffee are needed.

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