A M Navarro et al, 2017. Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension in the SUN Project, Clinical Nutrition, Article in Press.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND & AIMS:
Evidence on coffee consumption and its association with the incidence of hypertension is still inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association of regular or decaffeinated coffee consumption with the risk of developing hypertension in a middle-aged Mediterranean cohort.

METHODS:
The SUN Project is a prospective open cohort with more than 22,500 Spanish university graduates. For the present study, we analyzed data from 13,374 participants initially free of hypertension (mean follow-up 9.1 years). The consumption of regular and decaffeinated coffee was obtained at baseline using a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Validated, self-reported medical diagnoses of hypertension were collected biennially. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for incident hypertension according to baseline coffee consumption. We assessed the interaction with sex and baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

RESULTS:
Among 121,397 person-years of follow-up, a total of 1757 participants developed hypertension. Overall, coffee consumption -either caffeinated or decaffeinated- was not significantly associated with the risk of hypertension. Only among women, higher consumption of regular coffee was associated with a 26% lower risk of hypertension (>=2 cups/d vs. never/seldom, 95% CI 9%-39%; p for interaction: 0.0236). Women with a low baseline adherence to the Mediterranean diet showed the strongest risk reduction (HR ≥ 2 cups/d vs. never/seldom 0.58, 95% CI (0.41-0.82) p for interaction = 0.0452).

CONCLUSION:
In the SUN project we found an inverse association between regular coffee consumption and the risk of hypertension in women, which was strongest among women with a suboptimal food pattern (low adherence to the Mediterranean diet).

The post A M Navarro et al, 2017. Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension in the SUN Project, Clinical Nutrition, Article in Press. appeared first on Coffee and Health.

I Y Kim et al, 2018. Interaction between caffeine and polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) on Parkinson’s disease risk. Movement Disorders, published online.

ABSTRACT

Background:
Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent.

Method:
We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Matching factors included cohort, birth year, source of DNA, date of DNA collection, and race. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic models. Interactions were tested both on the multiplicative scale and on the additive scale.

Results:
Overall, caffeine intake was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted relative risk for highest versus lowest tertile 5 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.57- 0.86; p < .001). In analyses stratified by the GRIN2Ars4998386 genotype, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of PD comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of caffeine was 0.69 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.88; p < .01) among individuals homozygous for the C allele, and 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.32; p 5 .47; pRERI 5 .43) among carriers for the T allele. Interactions between caffeine and GRIN2A were not significant in either the multiplicative or additive scales. We also did not observe significant interactions for CYP1A2- rs762551 and incident PD risk.

Conclusion:
Our findings do not support the hypothesis of an interaction between the GRIN2A-rs4998386 or CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphism and caffeine intake in determining PD risk.

The post I Y Kim et al, 2018. Interaction between caffeine and polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) on Parkinson’s disease risk. Movement Disorders, published online. appeared first on Coffee and Health.

M Morales-Suarez-Varela et al, 2017. Potential combined effects of maternal smoking and coffee intake on foetal death within the Danish National Birth Cohort, European Journal of Public Health, published online.

ABSTRACT

Background:
Several studies have linked coffee intake and smoking to foetal death, but a possible interaction between both exposures remains unknown.

Methods: We studied, within the Danish National Birth Cohort, the potential interaction between smoking and coffee drinking while pregnant on the risk of foetal (early and late)
death. The study included 90 086 pregnant women, with information about their smoking habit and coffee intake in early pregnancy, and several potential confounding factors. Interaction was studied by calculating both the hazard ratio (HR) in Cox’s regression (linear and smoothed restricted cubic spline) and the interaction contrast ratio (ICR).

Results:
Women who neither smoked nor drank coffee were used as the reference group. Drinking more than 3 cups/d of coffee was associated with the highest risk of foetal death, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth for all smoking status (non-smoker, 10 or > 10 cigarettes/d). Among smokers, the combination with drinking <3 cups/d of coffee presented the lowest HRa for foetal death, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. The ICRs were negative when considering smokers who had a coffee intake up to 3 cups/d, but they were positive for those who had a higher coffee intake, suggesting the effect of coffee intake may be non-linear.

Conclusion:
Our results suggest that the combined effect of smoking and coffee intake during pregnancy on the risk of foetal death is coffee-dose-dependent. A low coffee intake may reduce the risk of foetal death associated with smoking while a high coffee intake increases the risk.

The post M Morales-Suarez-Varela et al, 2017. Potential combined effects of maternal smoking and coffee intake on foetal death within the Danish National Birth Cohort, European Journal of Public Health, published online. appeared first on Coffee and Health.