S E Hillier & E K Olander, 2017. Women’s dietary changes before and during pregnancy: a systematic review. Midwifery, article in press.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: dietary intake before and during pregnancy has significant health outcomes for both mother and child, including a healthy gestational weight gain. To ensure effective interventions are successfully developed to improve dietary intake during pregnancy, it is important to understand what dietary changes pregnant women make without intervention.

AIMS: to systematically identify and review studies examining women’s dietary changes before and during pregnancy and to identify characteristics of the women making these changes.

METHODS: a systematic search strategy was employed using three databases (Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed) in May 2016. Search terms included those relating to preconception, pregnancy and diet. All papers were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklist for cohort studies. The search revealed 898 articles narrowed to full-text review of 23 studies. In total, 11 research articles were included in the review, describing nine different studies. The findings were narratively summarised in line with the aims of the review.

FINDINGS: the included studies showed marked heterogeneity, which impacts on the findings. However, the majority report an increase in energy intake (kcal or kJ) during pregnancy. Of the studies that reported changes through food group comparisons, a majority reported a significant increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, a decrease in egg consumption, a decrease in fried and fast food consumption and a decrease in coffee and tea consumption from before to during pregnancy. The characteristics of the women participating in these studies, suggest that age, education and pregnancy intention are associated with healthier dietary changes; however these factors were only assessed in a small number of studies.

KEY CONCLUSIONS: the 11 included articles show varied results in dietary intake during pregnancy as compared to before. More research is needed regarding who makes these healthy changes, this includes consistency regarding measurement tools, outcomes and time points.

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Midwives as well as intervention developers need to be aware of the dietary changes women may spontaneously engage in when becoming pregnant, so that care and interventions can build on these.

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S Parodi et al, 2017. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of leukaemia in an adult population: a reanalysis of the Italian multicentre case-control study, Cancer Epidemiology, Volume 47, published online.

ABSTRACT:

Background:
Coffee and tea are the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Their potential effect on the risk of developing different types of malignancies has been largely investigated, but studies on leukaemia in adults are scarce.

Methods:
The present investigation is aimed at evaluating the potential role of regular coffee and tea intake on the risk of adult leukaemia by reanalysing a large population based case-control study carried out in Italy, a country with a high coffee consumption and a low use of green tea. Interviewed subjects, recruited between 1990 and 1993 in 11 Italian areas, included 1771 controls and 651 leukaemia cases. Association between Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia, Chronic Lymphoid Leukaemia, and use of coffee and tea was evaluated by standard logistic regression. Odds Ratios (OR) were estimated adjusting for the following potential confounders: gender, age, residence area, smoking habit, educational level, previous chemotherapy treatment, alcohol consumption and exposure to electromagnetic fields, radiation, pesticides and aromatic hydrocarbons.

Results:
No association was observed between regular use of coffee and any type of leukaemia. A small protective effect of tea intake was found among myeloid malignancies, which was more evident among AML (OR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.49–0.94). However, no clear dose-response relation was found.

Conclusion:
The lower risk of leukaemia among regular coffee consumers, reported by a few of previous small studies, was not confirmed. The protective effect of tea on the AML risk is only partly consistent with results from other investigations.

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M A Han & J H Kim, 2017. Coffee Consumption and the risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume

ABSTRACT

An inverse association has been reported between coffee consumption and the risk of several cancers. However, the association between coffee and thyroid cancer is controversial. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Published studies were examined from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles. The summary odds ratio (OR) for the association between coffee consumption was categorized as highest versus lowest consumption, and thyroid cancer risk was calculated using a fixed effects model. Subgroup analyses by study design, geographic location, source of controls, and adjusted variables were performed. A total of 1039 thyroid cancer cases and 220,816 controls were identified from five case-control studies and two cohort studies. The summary OR for the association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk was 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-1.07). There was no significant heterogeneity among the study results (I² = 0%, p = 0.79). However, the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on thyroid cancer was found only in hospital-based case-control studies (OR= 0.59, 95% CI= 0.37-0.93). There was no significant association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk according to our meta-analysis results. These findings should be interpreted with caution because of potential biases and confounding variables. Further prospective studies with a larger number of cases are encouraged to confirm these results.

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